I sat down and looked at the screenshot from previous post, and saw something suspicious. I then took a look, and my suspicions was confirmed.
I changed from this:
And lo and behold! The line vs circle collision works perfectly with that one change! A bug from copy/paste...
Now I can finally show what I'm talking about! Here's a bunch of screenshots:
A ship's shield is powerful enough to withstand a beam:
A ship's shield is barely strong enough to stop the laser on its second penetration:
A ship's shield is unable to stop the beam at all:
Multiple ships lined up are able to stop the beam after several shield penetrations:
A ship with two different shields (one short and one long range):
Whew! There's still two more things I need to add: cooldown between each particle (if you have 10 laser cannon, have it fire 10 times with about .1 second delay, instead of firing it all at once), and ability to set spawn conditions from inside the script (position and angle). For now, I'm done with this, next up is the tutorial system!