Over on Realmsbeyond.net forums, someone sacrificed their Master of Orion strategy guide and scanned it into a PDF. I obtained a copy from him, and looked through it. O____O!
It might be a design document for the game for all the details it contains! 400 pages of goodies, including how races' home systems are set up, rules for random planet generation, many formulas for how things works, and even how the AI battles in tactical combat, as well as how they decide which system to attack. In the guide, they said they pored through the source code, and the guide is based on version 1.3, which explains their in-depth knowledge of the game. This is a huge boon! I've added the PDF to my project SVN, so go ahead and check it out! I'm not sure about legality of this, but since it's not in print anymore, and to re-print it wouldn't be profitable, I think it should be fine. If you or you know someone that objects, let me know, and I'll remove it.
I learned something new from the guide, when you're in main menu, press and hold ALT, and type "TUTOR", it'll start a pre-set game in simple difficulty! I never knew it had this! The guide then tells you what to do turn by turn. So, pretty amazing stuff!